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Associations

Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

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Down's syndrome is associated with a higher incidence of a variety of congenital abnormalities, including:

  • duodenal atresia in 10%
  • Hirschsprung's disease in 3%
  • other intestinal atresias

Up to 40% of cases are born with congenital heart defects, including:

  • atrioventricular canal - the most common major defect
  • ventricular septal defect
  • patent ductus arteriosus
  • atrial septal defect - ostium primum in 40%
  • tetralogy of Fallot

Rarer associations include:

  • annular pancreas
  • increased incidence of sensorineural deafness

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