Last reviewed 05/2020
Pantothenic acid is a water soluble vitamin that is a constituent of coenzyme A.
It is essential for transfer of pyruvic acid into Krebs cycle, conversion of lipids and ketogenic amino acids into glucose, and synthesis of cholesterol and steroid hormones.
Sources include kidney, liver, yeast, green vegetables, and cereal. Within these sources it is found mainly as coenzyme A; this is hydrolyzed within the gastrointestinal tract to pantotheine and pantothenate. After absorption, of pantotheine, coenzyme A is resynthesized.
Pantothenic acid can also be produced by bacteria in the GI tract.
It is stored in the liver and kidneys. It is excreted by the kidneys: monitoring urinary output is one means of assessing panthothenic acid status.
The ubiquitous nature of pantothenic acid makes deficiency extremely rare.