aetiology

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Causes include:

  • lymphadenopathy e.g. lymphoma, tuberculosis, carcinoma.
  • thyroid derived e.g. thymoma, retrosternal goitre.
  • aortic e.g. aneurysm, coarctation.
  • herniae e.g. hiatus hernia, diaphragmatic herniae.
  • oesophageal e.g. achalasia, neoplasm.
  • cystic e.g. teratoma, dermoid, bronchial, hydatid.
  • neurogenic e.g. neurofibroma, ganglioneuroma.
  • others e.g. paravertebral abscess, mesothelioma, lipoma.

Last reviewed 01/2018