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Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team

  • general:
    • appearance, e.g. cachexic - carcinoma, barrel chest - chronic bronchitis
    • clubbing, e.g. lung cancer, bronchiectasis
    • lymph nodes
    • temperature
    • cyanosis
    • stridor - foreign body
  • hands - nicotine, clubbing, flap, wasting - apical cancer - pulse rate
  • respiratory rate
  • breathing pattern - Cheyne-Stokes
  • inspection - shape and symmetry of chest, movement of chest wall
  • palpation - expansion, trachea, apex beat, vocal fremitus
  • percussion - signs of consolidation - dull
  • auscultation - bronchial breath sounds: consolidation, lung cavities - tuberculosis, aspergilloma; vocal resonance: increased over consolidation

Other factors, e.g. blood pressure, heart sounds.

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