This site is intended for healthcare professionals

Go to /sign-in page

You can view 5 more pages before signing in


Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team

This is unknown but:

  • high titres of circulating speckled or nucleolar antinuclear antibody has been found in up to 60% of cases
  • familial cases have been documented
  • HLA-B8 and DR3 haplotypes occur frequently
  • environmental factors may, in some cases, play an initiating role:
    • agents inducing scleroderma include benzene, silica, epoxy resin, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, drugs (e.g. cocaine, carbidopa, bleomycin).

Related pages

Create an account to add page annotations

Annotations allow you to add information to this page that would be handy to have on hand during a consultation. E.g. a website or number. This information will always show when you visit this page.