thoracotomy may be considered for diagnosis and removal
radiotherapy may be indicated for the primary tumour or for any tumour residue - this may be curative in neuroblastoma and thymoma; it may achieve long-term control in malignant teratoma
combination chemotherapy may be required for neuroblastoma
note that treatment with radiotherapy may cause dysphagia and an irritant cough during and immediately after treatment. Occasionally there may be later symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis and pericardial fibrosis.