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If anal carcinoma is discovered early enough then surgical excision may be undertaken without damaging the anal sphincter muscles.
Lesions within the anal canal and more extensive lesions of the anus may requires sacrifice of the sphincters with an abdominoperineal resection of the rectum and anus followed by a permanent colostomy in the left iliac fossa.
Radiotherapy may be used in the treatment of localised anal carcinomas with the preservation of anal sphincter function. Treatment is with the use of radiocaesium needles which are implanted into the tumour tissue. A preliminary colostomy may be required to direct contents of bowel away from the treatment area.
Radiotherapy may also be used in palliative treatment of anal carcinoma.