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Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

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  • haematogenous spread - usually, from a primary site in the heart, lung or distal bones - for example:
    • subacute bacterial endocarditis - usually causing multiple abscesses
    • cyanotic congenital heart disease - loss of pulmonary filtration of organisms
    • chronic pulmonary sepsis / bronchiectasis

  • direct implantation of organisms - usually, trauma, neurosurgery

  • local extension from adjacent foci - for example:
    • suppurative otitis media } mainly to temporal lobe;
    • mastoiditis } less to cerebellum
    • frontal sinusitis
    • orbital cellulitis

  • impaired immunity / diabetes

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