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Screening and diagnosis of male breast cancer

Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team

There are no formal recommendations or guidelines on screening and diagnosis of male breast cancer (1).


  • there is no practical role of mammographic screening of all men due to the low incidence in the general population

  • for individuals with an increased risk of developing breast cancer the following screening and surveillance are recommended:
    • monthly breast self-examination
    • semi-annual clinical breast examination
    • baseline mammography followed by annual mammography if gynecomastia and/or breast density seen on baseline (2)


  • mammography
    • useful in differentiating malignant breast disease form gynaecomastia
    • sensitivity and specificity of mammography for the diagnosis of MBC is 92% and 90%, respectively
  • ultrasound
    • shows an irregular hypoechoic solid mass
    • a complex cystic mass also is suspicious
    • should include the ipsilateral axilla and any abnormal nodes should be sampled by fine-needle aspiration or core biopsy (3)
  • ultrasound-guided core biopsy
    • only method to obtain a definitive diagnosis


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