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Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team

Anal continence requires the apposition of three mucosal pads which:

  • are composed of subepithelial vascular cushions
  • are found in the left lateral, right anterolateral and right posterolateral portions of the anal canal
  • form haemorrhoids when the pads become enlarged and congested

Haemorrhoids may cause:

  • anal pain
  • pruritus ani
  • bright red rectal bleeding

Haemorrhoids are very common and can occur at any age.

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