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Common causes

Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team

Condition Clinical features Investigations

  • oesophageal retrosternal pain endoscopy, spasm oesophageal manometry
  • reflux retrosternal pain endoscopy, oesophagitis flatulence, barium swallow, pH dyspepsia monitoring
  • peptic ulcer, epigastric pain gastroscopy, barium gastritis related to food, meal weight loss
  • biliary colic severe RUQ or LFTs, US, ERCP epigastric pain
  • pancreatitis severe epigastric amylase +++, US, pain radiating to CT scan abdomen the back
  • irritable abdominal pain + negative bowel syndrome diarrhoea and/or investigations constipation, tenesmus, abdominal bloating
  • hepatitis RUQ pain, jaundice, LFTs, US, liver lethargy biopsy, serology
  • Crohn's colicky pain, barium enema, disease diarrhoea, weight loss colonoscopy
  • ulcerative bloody diarrhoea sigmoidoscopy / colitis colonoscopy, barium enema with biopsy
  • diverticulitis "left sided barium enema, appendicitis", WCC++ bleeding PR
  • renal colic loin pain that abdominal x-ray, radiates to groin, IVU haematuria
  • cystitis dysuria, suprapubic urine microscopy pain and culture
  • pyelonephritis fever, loin pain, AXR, MSU, IVU +/- haematuria

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