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Killip classification of heart failure

Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team

A categorisation of the severity of heart failure based on easily obtained clinical signs.

The main clinical features are:

  • Class I: no heart failure

  • Class II: crackles audible half way up the chest

  • Class III: crackles heard in all the lung fields

  • Class IV: cardiogenic shock.

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