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Chronic pancreatitis must be differentiated from pancreatic carcinoma, usually on the basis of ultrasound or CT. Other potentially useful tests for differentiation of these conditions include cytologic examination of pancreatic - duct fluid, fine needle biopsy of the pancreas, and measurement of tumour markers for pancreatic carcinoma e.g. carcinoembryonic antigen and CA19-9 (although these are not pathognomic for pancreatic cancer).