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Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team

If undetected the complications include:

  • heart failure - chronic volume loading of the right side of the heart may lead to cardiac failure at some time during adult life. This complication may be precipitated by atrial fibrillation or flutter
  • pulmonary hypertension

  • may be causative of stroke in certain patients whose stroke is otherwise cryptogenic (1)


  • Mac Grory B, Ohman E M, Feng W, Xian Y, Yaghi S, Kamel H et al. Advances in the management of cardioembolic stroke associated with patent foramen ovale BMJ 2022; 376 :e063161 doi:10.1136/bmj-2020-063161

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