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Seek expert help. Admit any patient with suspected IE to hospital for full investigation.

The management of infective endocarditis may be considered in terms of:

  • management of the acutely ill patient (1)
  • antibiotics. Antibiotic management of endocarditis, especially in culture-negative cases, is complex. The choice of regimens and ongoing input should be provided by an infection specialist. (2)
  • surgery. Antibiotics are the standard treatment for native valve infective endocarditis, with surgery primarily reserved for patients with heart failure or inadequate response to antibiotic treatment. (3)


1. European Society of Cardiology (Aug 2023). 2023 ESC Guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis.

2. Rajani R, Klein J. Infective endocarditis: A contemporary update. Clin. Med (Lond). 2020

3. Kang DH, Kim YJ, Kim SH, et al. Early surgery versus conventional treatment for infective endocarditis. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jun.

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