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Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

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  • blood cultures
  • echocardiography, cardiac doppler, transoesophageal doppler
  • urine - microscopic haematuria and proteinuria are common
  • blood:
    • normochromic, normocytic anaemia is usual; rarely, a haemolytic anaemia with positive Coomb's test
    • leukocytosis is common and occasionally, thrombocytopenia
    • liver function tests may show increased serum alkaline phosphatase
    • CRP and ESR are usually raised
  • chest radiology may reveal heart failure or emboli in right sided endocarditis
  • ECG may reveal myocardial infarction due to emboli
  • serum immunoglobulins are increased but total complement and C3 complement are decreased.

European Society of Cardiology (Aug 2023). 2023 ESC Guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis.

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