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Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

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The cause is often obscure. However, it may the end stage of such diseases as:

  • viral myocarditis
  • dilated cardiomyopathy

Autosomal inheritance has been proposed but spontaneous cases also occur.

One third of cases have other congenital defects in the heart or elsewhere, including patent foramen ovale, patent ductus arteriosus and coarctation of the aorta.

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