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Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team

Causes of EMD include:

  • hypoxia - check intubation } These are the
  • hypovolaemia } more readily
  • tension pneumothorax } treatable
  • cardiac tamponade } causes.
  • acidosis }
  • hypocalcaemia }
  • hyperkalaemia }
  • hypothermia }
  • hyponatraemia }
  • overdose of calcium antagonist }
  • massive pulmonary embolism
  • amphetamine overdose
  • glue sniffing
  • electric shock
  • near drowning

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